Overview[ edit ] The Metaphysics is considered to be one of the greatest philosophical works. Its influence on the Greeksthe Muslim philosophersthe scholastic philosophers and even writers such as Dantewas immense.
Books Zeta and Eta Summary Referring back to his logical work in the Categories, Aristotle opens book Zeta by asserting that substance is the primary category of being.
Instead of considering what being is, we can consider what substance is. Aristotle first rejects the idea that substance is the ultimate substrate of a thing, that which remains when all its accidental properties are stripped away. For example, a dog is more fundamental than the color brown or the property of hairiness that are associated with it.
However, if we strip away all the properties that a dog possesses, we wind up with a substrate with no properties of its own. Since this substrate has no properties, we can say nothing about it, so this substrate cannot be substance.
Instead, Aristotle suggests that we consider substance as essence and concludes that substances are species. The essence of a thing is that which makes it that thing. For example, being rational is an essential property of being human, because a human without rationality ceases to be human, but being musical is not an essential property of being human, because a human without musical skill is still human.
Individual people, or dogs, or tables, contain a mixture of essential and inessential properties. Species, on the other hand—for instance, people in general, dogs in general, or tables in general—contain only essential properties. A substance can be given a definition that does not presuppose the existence of anything else.
A proper definition of a thing will list only its essential properties, and Aristotle asserts that only substances have essential properties or definitions. A snub nose, by contrast, has only accidental properties—properties like redness or largeness that may hold of some snubs but not of all—and per se properties—properties like concavity, which necessarily holds of all snubs but which is not essential.
Physical objects are composites of form and matter, and Aristotle identifies substance with form. The matter of an object is the stuff that makes it up, whereas the form is the shape that stuff takes.
For example, the matter in a bronze sphere is the bronze itself, and the form is the spherical shape. Aristotle argues that form is primary because form is what gives each thing its distinctive nature. Aristotle has argued that the definitions of substances cannot presuppose the existence of anything else, which raises the question of how there can be a definition that does not presuppose the existence of anything else.
Presumably, a definition divides a whole into its constituent parts—for example, a human is defined as a rational animal—which suggests that a substance must in some way presuppose the existence of its constituent parts.
Aristotle distinguishes between those cases where the parts of an object or definition are prior to the whole and those cases where the whole is prior to the parts.
For example, we cannot understand the parts of a circle without first understanding the concept of circle as a whole; on the other hand, we cannot understand the whole of a syllable before we understand the letters that constitute its parts.
Aristotle’s concept of ‘God’ is set out in his Physics, books VII–VIII, and in Metaphysics, book XII. As actuality, not possibility, God is changeless and immaterial (On the Heavens, A, 18). God moves in a non-physical way (Metaphysics, B, 4). Aristotle anticipates later versions of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. Aristotle's Concept of Teleology In his Physics, Aristotle examines the theories and ideas regarding nature of his predecessors and then, based upon his own ideas, theories and experiments, argues against what he believes are incorrect conclusions. Metaphysics By Aristotle. Commentary: Many comments have been posted about Metaphysics. as we pointed out previously in our book on the various senses of words; And in one sense matter is said to be of the nature of substratum, in .
Aristotle argues that, in the case of substance, the whole is prior to the parts. He has earlier associated substance with form and suggests that we cannot make sense of matter before we can conceive of its form.
To say a substance can be divided by its definition is like saying a physical object can be divided into form and matter: Similarly, the parts of a definition of a substance are conceptually distinct, but they can only exist when they are joined in a substance.Matter and Explanation.
On Aristotle’s Metaphysics Book H Simone Giuseppe Seminara MATTER AND EXPLANATION. ON ARISTOTLE'S METAPHYSICS BOOK H Directeur de thèse: M. Pierre-Marie MOREL especially with the concept of . Two Kinds of Matter in Aristotle’s Metaphysics Christine M. Korsgaard p. 3 different regardbouddhiste.comitionalcasesareimportant.
First, Aristotle says that mathematical objects, such as the circle or the plane, also have a. Aristotle's Concept of Teleology In his Physics, Aristotle examines the theories and ideas regarding nature of his predecessors and then, based upon his own ideas, theories and experiments, argues against what he believes are incorrect conclusions.
We now call this science "metaphysics," though Aristotle himself thought of it as "first philosophy." "but because man is not found also in other matters we are unable to effect the severence" of the form from the matter in which it is found.
Aristotle now enunciates his main point of disagreement with Plato: "to bring all things thus to. The Subject Matter of Aristotle's Metaphysics understanding of things better known in themselves. The principles studied by ‘first In Book E, Aristotle adds another description to the study of the causes and principles of beings qua beings.
Whereas natural science st udies objects that are material and subject. Aristotle examines the concepts of substance (ousia) and essence (to ti ên einai, "the what it was to be") in his Metaphysics (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form, a .