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Classical Organization Theory Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory.
Frederick Taylor developed scientific management theory often called "Taylorism" at the beginning of this century. His theory had four basic principles: Initially, Taylor was very successful at improving production. His methods involved getting the best equipment and people, and then carefully scrutinizing each component of the production process.
By analyzing each task individually, Taylor was able to find the right combinations of factors that yielded large increases in production. While Taylor's scientific management theory proved successful in the simple industrialized companies at the turn of the century, it has not faired well in modern companies.
The philosophy of "production first, people second" has left a legacy of declining production and quality, dissatisfaction with work, loss of pride in workmanship, and a near complete loss of organizational pride. Max Weber expanded on Taylor's theories, and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations.
The focus was on establishing clear lines of authority and control. Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power.
It recognized the importance of division of labor and specialization. A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions, where all behavior could be understood by looking at cause and effect.
The emphasis was on establishing a universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations. Classical management theory was rigid and mechanistic.
The shortcomings of classical organization theory quickly became apparent. Its major deficiency was that it attempted to explain peoples' motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward.
Neoclassical Organization Theory The human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough, authoritarian structure of classical theory.
It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory.
The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created overconformity and rigidity, thus squelching creativity, individual growth, and motivation. Neoclassical theory displayed genuine concern for human needs. One of the first experiments that challenged the classical view was conducted by Mayo and Roethlisberger in the late 's at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Illinois Mayo, While manipulating conditions in the work environment e.
The act of paying attention to employees in a friendly and nonthreatening way was sufficient by itself to increase output. Uris referred to this as the "wart" theory of productivity.
Nearly any treatment can make a wart go away--nearly anything will improve productivity. The Hawthorne experiment is quite disturbing because it cast doubts on our ability to evaluate the efficacy of new management theories.Get Your FixGrammarly scans your text for common and complex grammatical mistakes, Write anywhere · Detect plagiarism · Easily improve any text · Eliminate grammar errorsGrammarly quickly and easily makes your writing better.
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The best example of writing in chronological order can be seen in any novel or short story. For the most part, all fiction is written in chronological order. These stories have a specific beginning, middle, and end. On a personal level, Manish is an well-rounded person, with a lot of enthusiasm for sports and extra-curricular activities.
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