It has already established a beachhead in the economy.
The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi inthough it was not widely known. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnologywhich proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control.
Also inDrexler co-founded The Foresight Institute with which he is no longer affiliated to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications. Since the popularity spike in the s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms.
First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyballis a representative member of the carbon structures known as fullerenes.
Members of the fullerene family are a major subject of research falling under the nanotechnology umbrella. In the early s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress.
These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle -based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
By the mids new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps   which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.
Fundamental concepts Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.
This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengthsor the spacing between these atoms in a moleculeare in the range 0. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US.
The lower limit is set by the size of atoms hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm kinetic diameter since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules.
The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.
The positions of the individual atoms composing the surface are visible. Nanomaterials Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases.
These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the " quantum size effect" where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions.Nanotechnology holds some answers for how we might increase the capabilities of electronics devices while we reduce their weight and power consumption.
Check out our Nanotechnology Applications in Electronics page to see how nanotechnology is being used in electronics.
Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) – by "bolting on" nanotechnology to existing regulations.
Some examples of using nanotechnology in the areas of computing, quantum computing, and communication devices can be seen in semiconductors, thin film storage, and magnetic random access memory. Nanoscale medicine has made significant breakthroughs in the applications of biocompatible materials, diagnostics, and treatments.
For something so small, the implications and breadth of the uses of nanotechnology are vast, ranging from curing cancer to feeding the Earth.
It may be thought of as truly harnessing the atom for the better, though some debate that. Our section "Ten things you should know about nanotechnology" provides you with an excellent first overview of what nanotechnologies are, what they are used for, and what some of the key issues are.
If you want to get a more in-depth view of nanotechnology in important industry areas. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SOME USAGE AREAS OF IT The nanometer is a unit length which equals meters, in other words, billionth of a meter.
In basic, logical perspective, the definition: the science, which studies the matter in nano dimensions for the term “nanoscience” is quite perceptible.