Financial Accounting Introduction The purpose of accounting is to provide the information that is needed for sound economic decision making. The main purpose of financial accounting is to prepare financial reports that provide information about a firm's performance to external parties such as investors, creditors, and tax authorities. Managerial accounting contrasts with financial accounting in that managerial accounting is for internal decision making and does not have to follow any rules issued by standard-setting bodies.
Accounting networks and associations Depending on its size, a company may be legally required to have their financial Introduction about accounting audited by a qualified auditor, and audits are usually carried out by accounting firms. Further large mergers in the late twentieth century led to the dominance of the auditing market by the "Big Five" accounting firms: Accounting standards and Convergence of accounting standards Generally accepted accounting principles GAAP are accounting standards issued by national regulatory bodies.
The PhD is the most common degree for those wishing to pursue a career in academia, while DBA programs generally focus on equipping business executives for business or public careers requiring research skills and qualifications.
Chartered Accountant and Certified Public Accountant Professional accounting qualifications include the Chartered Accountant designations and other qualifications including certificates and diplomas.
Students must pass a total of 14 exams, which are arranged across three papers. Accounting research Accounting research is research in the effects of economic events on the process of accounting, and the effects of reported information on economic events.
It encompasses a broad range of research areas including financial accountingmanagement accountingauditing and taxation. Methodologies in academic accounting research can be classified into archival research, which examines "objective data collected from repositories "; experimental research, which examines data "the researcher gathered by administering treatments to subjects "; and analytical research, which is "based on the act of formally modeling theories or substantiating ideas in mathematical terms".
This classification is not exhaustive; other possible methodologies include the use of case studiescomputer simulations and field research. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. January Main article: Accounting information system Many accounting practices have been simplified with the help of accounting computer-based software.
An Enterprise resource planning ERP system is commonly used for a large organisation and it provides a comprehensive, centralized, integrated source of information that companies can use to manage all major business processes, from purchasing to manufacturing to human resources.
Accounting information systems have reduced the cost of accumulating, storing, and reporting managerial accounting information and have made it possible to produce a more detailed account of all data that is entered into any given system.
Accounting scandals See also: Accounting ethics The year witnessed a series of financial information frauds involving Enronauditing firm Arthur Andersenthe telecommunications company WorldComQwest and Sunbeamamong other well-known corporations.
These problems highlighted the need to review the effectiveness of accounting standardsauditing regulations and corporate governance principles. In some cases, management manipulated the figures shown in financial reports to indicate a better economic performance.
In others, tax and regulatory incentives encouraged over-leveraging of companies and decisions to bear extraordinary and unjustified risk. The scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersenwhich at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world.
After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures conducted throughout the s, Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December The act significantly raises criminal penalties for securities fraudfor destroying, altering or fabricating records in federal investigations or any scheme or attempt to defraud shareholders.Accounting plays a vital role in facilitating all forms of economic activity in the private, public and nonprofit sectors.
Business owners and managers, in both large and small companies, use. Financial Accounting Introduction. The purpose of accounting is to provide the information that is needed for sound economic decision making.
The main purpose of financial accounting is to prepare financial reports that provide information about a firm's performance to external parties such as investors, creditors, and tax authorities. Introduction to Financial Accounting from University of Pennsylvania.
Master the technical skills needed to analyze financial statements and disclosures for use in financial analysis, and learn how accounting standards and managerial incentives.
Introduction to Accounting. Accounting is the language of business. It is the system of recording, summarizing, and analyzing an economic entity's financial transactions.
Effectively communicating this information is key to the success of every business. Those who rely on financial information include internal users, such as a company's.
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INTRODUCTION Accounting is a system meant for measuring business activities, processing of information into reports and making the findings available.