The first principle of an empiricist philosophy of mind is often illustrated by the notion of a Tabula Rasa, or a blank slate an illustration Locke himself made famous in the Essay: Locke, with his thoroughgoing, but rational, empiricism, cut a middle road through these two extreme positions, and offered an alternative view of the world and our access to it, which proved enticing to many thinkers.
The Essay wrestles with fundamental questions about how we think and perceive, and it even touches on how we express ourselves through language, logic, and religious practices. In the introduction, entitled The Epistle to the Reader, Locke describes how he became involved in his current mode of philosophical thinking.
He relates an anecdote about a conversation with friends that made him realize that men often suffer in their pursuit of knowledge because they fail to determine the limits of their understanding.
Locke attacks previous schools of philosophy, such as those of Plato and Descartes, that maintain a belief in a priori, or innate, knowledge.
Locke contends that, on the contrary, no principle is actually accepted by every human being. Furthermore, if universal agreement did exist about something, this agreement might have come about in a way other than through innate knowledge. Locke offers another argument against innate knowledge, asserting that human beings cannot have ideas in their minds of which they are not aware, so that people cannot be said to possess even the most basic principles until they are taught them or think them through for themselves.
Still another argument is that because human beings differ greatly in their moral ideas, moral knowledge must not be innate.
Finally, Locke confronts the theory of innate ideas along the lines of the Platonic Theory of Forms and argues that ideas often cited as innate are so complex and confusing that much schooling and thought are required to grasp their meaning.
Against the claim that God is an innate idea, Locke counters that God is not a universally accepted idea and that his existence cannot therefore be innate human knowledge.
He proposes that knowledge is built up from ideas, either simple or complex. Simple ideas combine in various ways to form complex ideas.
Therefore, the most basic units of knowledge are simple ideas, which come exclusively through experience. There are two types of experience that allow a simple idea to form in the human mind: Locke divides simple ideas into four categories: Locke goes on to explain the difference between primary and secondary qualities.
Ideas of primary qualities—such as texture, number, size, shape, and motion—resemble their causes. Ideas of secondary qualities do not resemble their causes, as is the case with color, sound, taste, and odor.
In other words, primary qualities cannot be separated from the matter, whereas secondary qualities are only the power of an object to produce the idea of that quality in our minds.
Locke devotes much of book II to exploring various things that our minds are capable of, including making judgments about our own perceptions to refine our ideas, remembering ideas, discerning between ideas, comparing ideas to one another, composing a complex idea from two or more simple ideas, enlarging a simple idea into a complex idea by repetition, and abstracting certain simple ideas from an already complex ideas.
Locke also discusses complex ideas, breaking them down into four basic types: Complex ideas are created through three methods: We form abstract general ideas for three reasons:An Essay concerning human Understanding by John Locke.
An essay concerning human understanding is one of the greatest philosophy works: Locke, folllowing, Descartes, described the new world of spirit and consciousness, thaht make human dignity.
Aug 21, · John Locke was born in in Wrighton, Somerset. His father was a lawyer and small landowner who had fought on the Parliamentarian side during the English Civil War of the s. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Homework Help Questions Please provide a summary of the key concepts of John Locke's Essay concerning Human Understanding.
Locke's Essay concerning Human Understanding, first published in England in , was a revolutionary treatise on how humans learn and is considered the foundation of . Study Guide for An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding study guide contains a biography of John Locke, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, and a full summary and analysis.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke. SHARE! Home; Literature Notes; An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Of Words; Table of Contents. All Subjects. Book Summary; About An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Summary and Analysis; Book I: Innate Ideas; Book II: Of Ideas, Chapters In .
John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a major work in the history of philosophy and a founding text in the empiricist approach to philosophical investigation.
Although ostensibly an investigation into the nature of knowledge and understanding (epistemology) this work ranges farther afield than one might expect.