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Psychoanalytic theory[ edit ] A number of theorists have influenced the field of gender studies significantly, specifically in terms of psychoanalytic theory.
Ettingerand Mark Blechner. Gender studied under the lens of each of these theorists looks somewhat different. In a Freudian system, women are "mutilated and must learn to accept their lack of a penis" in Freud's terms a "deformity".
Both male and female subjects participate in the "phallic" organization, and the feminine side of sexuation is "supplementary" and not opposite or complementary. In other words, the sexuation of an individual has as much, if not more, to do with their development of a gender identity as being genetically sexed male or female.
She contends that patriarchal cultures, like individuals, have to exclude the maternal and the feminine so that they can come into being. Ettinger transformed subjectivity in contemporary psychoanalysis since the early s with the Matrixial  feminine-maternal and prematernal Eros  of borderlinking bordurelianceborderspacing bordurespacement and co-emergence.
The matrixial feminine difference defines a particular gaze  and it is a source for trans-subjectivity and transjectivity  in both males and females. Ettinger rethinks the human subject as informed by the archaic connectivity to the maternal and proposes the idea of a Demeter-Persephone Complexity.
Blechner identifies the terror, in Western males, of penetration.
Yet in many societies, being gay is defined only by being a male who lets himself be penetrated. Males who penetrate other males are considered masculine and not gay and are not the targets of prejudice. Ettinger, Shoshana FelmanGriselda Pollock Luce Irigaray and Jane Flax have developed a Feminist psychoanalysis and argued that psychoanalytic theory is vital to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be criticized by women as well as transformed to free it from vestiges of sexism i.
Shulamith Firestonein "The Dialectic of Sex" calls Freudianism the misguided feminism and discusses how Freudianism is almost completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: Critics such as Elizabeth Grosz accuse Jacques Lacan of maintaining a sexist tradition in psychoanalysis.
Ettinger and Jane Gallop have used Lacanian work, though in a critical way, to develop gender theory. Marchand, "The gender studies and queer theory are rather reluctant, hostile to see the psychoanalytic approach. Virginia Woolf 's legacy as well as " Adrienne Rich 's call for women's revisions of literary texts, and history as well, has galvanized a generation of feminist authors to reply with texts of their own".
Post-modern influence[ edit ] The emergence of post-modernism theories affected gender studies,  causing a movement in identity theories away from the concept of fixed or essentialist gender identity, to post-modern  fluid  or multiple identities. Post-structuralism paved the way for the emergence of queer theory in gender studies, which necessitated the field expanding its purview to sexuality.
ConnellMichael Kimmeland E. Feminists argue that this erases the categories of gender altogether but does nothing to antagonize the power dynamics reified by gender. In other words, the fact that gender is socially constructed does not undo the fact that there are strata of oppression between genders.
Development of theory[ edit ] History[ edit ] The history of gender studies looks at the different perspectives of gender. This discipline examines the ways in which historical, cultural, and social events shape the role of gender in different societies.
The field of gender studies, while focusing on the differences between men and women, also looks at sexual differences and less binary definitions of gender categorization. It was the goal of many feminist scholars to question original assumptions regarding women's and men's attributes, to actually measure them, and to report observed differences between women and men.
Soon, men began to look at masculinity the same way that women were looking at femininity, and developed an area of study called "men's studies". This was due to the increasing interest in lesbian and gay rights, and scholars found that most individuals will associate sexuality and gender together, rather than as separate entities.Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and regardbouddhiste.coming on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation), sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.
Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or. The themes of race, sexuality, gender, nation, family, and class have been written into the body of nature in western life sciences since the eighteenth century.
Mar 27, · We wrote last week about a sweeping new study of income inequality in the United States, and how it varies by race and gender.
The data, including virtually all . adjective. of a different kind, form, character, etc.; unlike: a wide range of diverse opinions. of various kinds or forms; multiform.
including representatives from more than one social, cultural, or economic group, especially members of ethnic or religious minority groups: a diverse student body.
This guide stresses the systematic causal analysis of gender inequality. The analytical questions raised and the readings listed consider why and how gender inequality arises, varies across and within societies, persists over generations, produces conformity by individuals and institutions, resists change, and sometimes changes dramatically.
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