Both species showed a different behaviour for the elements studied. The enrichment ratio data indicated that Cu in soil and plant was enhanced with anthropogenic activities, with industrial activities being the primary contributor for Cu. All the other elements studied were controlled by natural source variations, but Pb could also be anthropogenically enhanced. Wood did not accumulate pollutants, with the translocation from bark being rather reduced.
History[ edit ] The first plant phytase was found in from rice bran   and in from an animal calf 's liver and blood. This project was launched in part due to concerns about mineable sources for inorganic phosphorus eventually running out see peak phosphoruswhich IMC was supplying for the feed industry at the time.
Aspergillus ficuum niger fungal strain NRRL ATCC was identified as a promising candidate  as it was able to produce large amounts of extracellular phytases. Rudy Wodzinski who formerly participated in the IMC's project. HAPs have been isolated from filamentous fungi, bacteria, yeast, and plants.
This class of metalloenzyme has been well studied and searches of genomic databases reveal PAP-like sequences in plants, mammals, fungi, and bacteria. However, only the PAP from soybeans has been found to have any significant phytase activity.
The three-dimensional structure, active-site sequence motif and proposed mechanism of catalysis have been determined for PAPs.
PTP-like phytases, a relatively newly discovered class of phytase, have been isolated from bacteria that normally inhabit the gut of ruminant animals. Only a few phytases have been described as highly specific for phytic acid, such as phytases from Bacillus sp.
Phytases hydrolyze phosphates from phytic acid in a stepwise manner, yielding products that again become substrates for further hydrolysis.
Most phytases are able to cleave five of the six phosphate groups from phytic acid. Phytases have been grouped based on the first phosphate position of phytic acid that is hydrolyzed. The Enzyme Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry recognizes three types of phytases based on the position of the first phosphate hydrolyzed, those are 3-phytase EC 3.
To date, most of the known phytases are 3-phytases or 4-phytases,  only a HAP purified from lily pollen  and a PTP-like phytase from Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. Biological relevance[ edit ] Phytic acid and its metabolites have several important roles in seeds and grains, most notably, phytic acid functions as a phosphorus store, as an energy store, as a source of cations and as a source of myo-inositol a cell wall precursor.
Phytic acid is the principal storage forms of phosphorus in plant seeds and the major source of phosphorus in the grain-based diets used in intensive livestock operations.
The organic phosphate found in phytic acid is largely unavailable to the animals that consume it, but the inorganic phosphate that phytases release can be easily absorbed. Ruminant animals can use phytic acid as a source of phosphorus because the bacteria that inhabit their gut are well characterized producers of many types of phytases.
However, monogastric animals do not carry bacteria that produce phytase, thus, these animals cannot use phytic acid as a major source of phosphorus and it is excreted in the feces. As such, phytases, which hydrolyze phytic acid and its metabolites, also have important roles.
Phytic acid and its metabolites have been implicated in DNA repair, clathrin-coated vesicular recycling, control of neurotransmission and cell proliferation. Phytase has been reported to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a human exposed while adding the enzyme to cattle feed.
Research in the field of animal nutrition has put forth the idea of supplementing feed with phytase so as to make available to the animal phytate-bound nutrients like calciumphosphorusother minerals, carbohydratesand proteins.
Phytase is used as an animal feed supplement — often in poultry and swine — to enhance the nutritive value of plant material by liberation of inorganic phosphate from phytic acid myo-inositol hexakisphosphate.What Is the Chemical Composition of Urine?
Search the site GO. Science. Chemistry Biochemistry Basics Chemical Laws phosphorus, citric acid, glucuronic acid, ammonia, uric acid, and many others. Total solids in urine add up to around 59 grams per person. Chemical Elements in Human Urine. The element abundance depends on diet, health.
Valentin sometimes experiments with transforming human beings into humanoid animals. Weasel: Dr.
Phosphorus: Detective Comics # Professor Henry Ross is a scientist who is accidentally transformed into "a human radium ray". In need of an expensive antidote, Ross uses his newfound powers to commit crimes in Gotham; anxious not to hurt.
Urine is a liquid produced by the kidneys to remove waste products from the bloodstream. Human urine is yellowish in color and variable in chemical composition, but here is a list of its primary components.
On the other hand, in viviparous animals (majority of mammals including human beings), the zygote develops into a young one inside the body of the female organism.
After attaining a certain stage of growth, the young ones are delivered out of the body of the female organism.5/5(1). Phosphorus – Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but because it is reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.
Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria.